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Person Edit

First Edit

the speaker

First exclusive Edit

Exclusive "we" specifically excludes the addressee (that is, another word for "we" means "he/she/they and I, but not you")

First inclusive Edit

Inclusive "we" specifically includes the addressee (that is, one of the words for "we" means "you and I")

Second Edit

the addressee

Third Edit

others

Third obviative Edit

a less topical third person

Third proximate Edit

a more topical third person

Fourth Edit

The term fourth person is also sometimes used for the category of indefinite or generic referents when the grammar treats them differently from ordinary third-person forms.

Zero Edit

The so-called "zero person" in Finnish and related languages, in addition to passive voice may serve to leave the subject-referent open.


Gender Edit

Masculine Edit

Masculine gender is a grammatical gender that: marks nouns having human or animal male referents; and often marks nouns having referents that do not have distinctions of sex.

Feminine Edit

Feminine gender is a grammatical gender that: marks nouns that have human or animal female referents; and often marks nouns that have referents that do not carry distinctions of sex.

Neuter Edit

Neuter gender is a grammatical gender that: includes those nouns having referents which do not have distinctions of sex; and often includes some which do have a natural sex distinction.


Number Edit

Singular Edit

Singular number is number that refers to one member of a designated class.

Plural Edit

Plural number is number that expresses reference to a quantity greater than that expressed by the largest specific number category in a language, such as "more than one" in English, and "more than two" in some other languages

Dual Edit

Dual number is number which refers to two members of the class identified by the noun.

Trial Edit

A trial number is a number that refers to three members of the designated class.

Paucal Edit

<10


Noun Class Edit

Animate Edit

An animate class is a category of nouns having human or animal referents.

Human Edit

A human class is a noun class that has human referents.

Inanimate Edit

An inanimate class is a category of nouns that do not have human or animal referents.

Bantu Noun Class Edit

· 1       singular: persons

· 2       plural: persons (a plural counterpart of class 1)

· 3       singular: plants

· 4       plural: plants (a plural counterpart of class 3)

· 5       singular: fruits

· 6       plural: fruits (a plural counterpart of class 5, 9, 11, seldom 1)

· 7       singular: things

· 8       plural: things (a plural counterpart of class 7)

· 9       singular: animals, things

· 10     plural: animals, things (a plural counterpart of class 9 and 11)

· 11     singular: no clear semantics

· 15     verbal nouns

· 16     locative meanings: close to something

· 17     indefinite locative or directive meaning

· 18     locative meanings: inside something


Case Edit

Main Article: Case (Linguistics)