First exclusive Edit
Exclusive "we" specifically excludes the addressee (that is, another word for "we" means "he/she/they and I, but not you")
First inclusive Edit
Inclusive "we" specifically includes the addressee (that is, one of the words for "we" means "you and I")
Third obviative Edit
a less topical third person
Third proximate Edit
a more topical third person
The term fourth person is also sometimes used for the category of indefinite or generic referents when the grammar treats them differently from ordinary third-person forms.
The so-called "zero person" in Finnish and related languages, in addition to passive voice may serve to leave the subject-referent open.
Masculine gender is a grammatical gender that: marks nouns having human or animal male referents; and often marks nouns having referents that do not have distinctions of sex.
Feminine gender is a grammatical gender that: marks nouns that have human or animal female referents; and often marks nouns that have referents that do not carry distinctions of sex.
Neuter gender is a grammatical gender that: includes those nouns having referents which do not have distinctions of sex; and often includes some which do have a natural sex distinction.
Singular number is number that refers to one member of a designated class.
Plural number is number that expresses reference to a quantity greater than that expressed by the largest specific number category in a language, such as "more than one" in English, and "more than two" in some other languages
Dual number is number which refers to two members of the class identified by the noun.
A trial number is a number that refers to three members of the designated class.
Noun Class Edit
An animate class is a category of nouns having human or animal referents.
A human class is a noun class that has human referents.
An inanimate class is a category of nouns that do not have human or animal referents.
Bantu Noun Class Edit
· 1 singular: persons
· 2 plural: persons (a plural counterpart of class 1)
· 3 singular: plants
· 4 plural: plants (a plural counterpart of class 3)
· 5 singular: fruits
· 6 plural: fruits (a plural counterpart of class 5, 9, 11, seldom 1)
· 7 singular: things
· 8 plural: things (a plural counterpart of class 7)
· 9 singular: animals, things
· 10 plural: animals, things (a plural counterpart of class 9 and 11)
· 11 singular: no clear semantics
· 15 verbal nouns
· 16 locative meanings: close to something
· 17 indefinite locative or directive meaning
· 18 locative meanings: inside something
Main Article: Case (Linguistics)