Abbreviations: [L] Location; [Mf] Motion from; [Mt] Motion to; [Mv] Motion via; [T] Time; [MA] Morphosyntactic alignment; [R] Relation; [Sem] Semantics; [S] State
Common Cases Edit
[R][Mf] Ablative Edit
Ablative case is a case that expresses a variety of meanings including instrument, cause, location, source, and time.
[MA] Absolutive Edit
Absolutive case is the case of nouns in ergative-absolutive languages that would generally be the subjects of intransitive verbs or the objects of transitive verbs in the translational equivalents of nominative-accusative languages such as English.
[MA] [T] Accusative Edit
Accusative case is the case in nominative-accusative languages that marks certain syntactic functions, usually direct objects. Also, indicating a duration of time (known as the accusative of duration of time)
[Mt] Allative Edit
Allative case is a case that expresses motion to or toward the referent of the noun it marks.
[R] Benefactive Edit
Benefactive case is a case that expresses that the referent of the noun it marks receives the benefit of the situation expressed by the clause.
[R] Dative Edit
Dative case is a case that marks any of the following: Indirect objects (for languages in which they are held to exist); or Nouns having the role of recipient (as of things given), beneficiary of an action, or possessor of an item
[MA] Ergative Edit
Ergative case is the case of nouns in ergative-absolutive languages that would generally be the subjects of transitive verbs in the translation equivalents of nominative-accusative languages such as English.
[R] Genitive Edit
Genitive case is a case in which the referent of the marked noun is the possessor of the referent of another noun.
[Mt] Illative Edit
Illative case is a case that expresses motion into or direction toward the referent of the noun it marks.
[MA] Instrumental Edit
Instrumental case is a case indicating that the referent of the noun it marks is the means of the accomplishment of the action expressed by the clause.
[L] Locative Edit
Locative case is a case that expresses location at the referent of the noun it marks.
[MA] Nominative Edit
Nominative case is the case that identifies clause subjects in nominative-accusative languages. Nouns used in isolation have this case.
[Sem] Vocative Edit
Vocative case is a case that marks a noun whose referent is being addressed.
Less Common Cases Edit
[S] Abessive Edit
Abessive case is a case that expresses the lack or absence of the referent of the noun it marks. It has the meaning of the English preposition without.
[L] Adessive Edit
adjacent location; near/at/by the house
[S] Adverbial Edit
being as something; as a house
[MA] Agentive Edit
agent, specifies or asks about who or what; specific agent that is subset of a general topic or subject
it was she who committed the crime; as for him, his head hurts
[L] Apudessive Edit
location next to something; next to the house
[R] Aversive Edit
avoiding or fear; avoiding the house
[R] Causative Edit
Causative case is a case which expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the cause of the situation expressed by the clause.
[R] Comitative Edit
Comitative case is a case expressing accompaniment. It carries the meaning "with" or "accompanied by."
[S] Comparative Edit
similarity with something; similar to a house
[Mf] Delative Edit
Delative case is a case which expresses motion downward from the referent of the noun it marks.
[R] Distributive Edit
distribution by piece; per house
[Mf] Egressive Edit
marking the beginning of a movement or time; beginning from the house
[Mf] Elative Edit
Elative case is a case expressing motion out of or away from the referent of the noun it marks.
[S] Equative Edit
Equative case is a case that expresses likeness or identity to the referent of the noun it marks. It can have meaning, such as: as, like, and in the capacity of.
[S] [T] Essive Edit
Essive case is a case that expresses the temporary state of the referent specified by a noun. The case has the meaning of while, and in the capacity of. Also used for specifying days and dates when something happens
[S] Exessive Edit
marking a transition from a condition; from being a house (i.e. it stops being a house)
[S] Formal Edit
marking a consition as a quality; as a house
[S] Identical Edit
showing that something is identical; being the house
[L] Inessive Edit
Inessive case is a case that expresses a location within the referent of the noun it marks.
[Mf] Initiative Edit
starting point of an action; beginning from the house
[MA] Instructive Edit
means, answers question how?; by means of the house
[MA] Intransitive Edit
the subject of an intransitive verb or the logical complement of a transitive verb; The door opened
[L] Intrative Edit
between something; between the houses
[Mt] Lative Edit
Lative case is a case that expresses motion up to the location of, or as far as the referent of the noun it marks.
[T] Limitive Edit
specifying a deadline
[MA] Objective Edit
direct or indirect object of verb; I saw her; I gave her the book.
[MA] Oblique Edit
all-round case; any situation except nominative or vocative || concerning the house
[S] Orientative Edit
oriented towards something; turned toward the house
[R] Ornative Edit
endowment with something; equipped with a house
[Sem] Partitive Edit
Partitive case is a case that expresses the partial nature of the referent of the noun it marks, as opposed to expressing the whole unit or class of which the referent is a part. This case may be found in items such as the following: Existential clauses; Nouns that are accompanied by numerals or units of measure; Predications of material from which something is made. It often has a meaning similar to the English word some.
[MA] Pegative Edit
agent in a clause with a dative argument; he gave the book to him
[Mv] Perlative Edit
movement through or along something; through/along the house
[L] Pertingent Edit
in contact with something; touching the house
[R] Posessed Edit
possession by something; the house is owned by someone
[R] Posessive Edit
direct possession of something; owned by the house
[R] Privative Edit
lacking something; without a house
[Mv] Prolative Edit
Prolative case is a case that expresses motion along or by the referent of the noun it marks.
[S] Revertive Edit
backwards to something; against the house
[R] Semblative Edit
similarity to something; that tree is like a house
[R] Sociative Edit
along with something, together with something; with the house
[L] Subessive Edit
under something; under/below the house
[Mt] Sublative Edit
movement onto the surface or below something; on(to) the house, under the house
[L] Superessive Edit
Superessive case is a case that expresses location on the referent of the noun it marks. It has the meaning of "on" or "upon."
[T] Temporal Edit
(used only with time expressions) specifying a time
[Mt] Terminative Edit
marking the end of a movement or time; as far as the house
[S] Translative Edit
Translative case is a case indicating that the referent of the noun, or the quality of the adjective, that it marks is the result of a process of change.