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Abbreviations: [L] Location; [Mf] Motion from; [Mt] Motion to; [Mv] Motion via; [T] Time; [MA] Morphosyntactic alignment; [R] Relation; [Sem] Semantics; [S] State

Common Cases Edit

[R][Mf] Ablative Edit

Ablative case is a case that expresses a variety of meanings including instrument, cause, location, source, and time.

[MA] Absolutive Edit

Absolutive case is the case of nouns in ergative-absolutive languages that would generally be the subjects of intransitive verbs or the objects of transitive verbs in the translational equivalents of nominative-accusative languages such as English.

[MA] [T] Accusative Edit

Accusative case is the case in nominative-accusative languages that marks certain syntactic functions, usually direct objects. Also, indicating a duration of time (known as the accusative of duration of time)

[Mt] Allative Edit

Allative case is a case that expresses motion to or toward the referent of the noun it marks.

[R] Benefactive Edit

Benefactive case is a case that expresses that the referent of the noun it marks receives the benefit of the situation expressed by the clause.

[R] Dative Edit

Dative case is a case that marks any of the following: Indirect objects (for languages in which they are held to exist); or Nouns having the role of recipient (as of things given), beneficiary of an action, or possessor of an item

[MA] Ergative Edit

Ergative case is the case of nouns in ergative-absolutive languages that would generally be the subjects of transitive verbs in the translation equivalents of nominative-accusative languages such as English.

[R] Genitive Edit

Genitive case is a case in which the referent of the marked noun is the possessor of the referent of another noun.

[Mt] Illative Edit

Illative case is a case that expresses motion into or direction toward the referent of the noun it marks.

[MA] Instrumental Edit

Instrumental case is a case indicating that the referent of the noun it marks is the means of the accomplishment of the action expressed by the clause.

[L] Locative Edit

Locative case is a case that expresses location at the referent of the noun it marks.

[MA] Nominative Edit

Nominative case is the case that identifies clause subjects in nominative-accusative languages. Nouns used in isolation have this case.

[Sem] Vocative Edit

Vocative case is a case that marks a noun whose referent is being addressed.

Less Common Cases Edit

[S] Abessive Edit

Abessive case is a case that expresses the lack or absence of the referent of the noun it marks. It has the meaning of the English preposition without.

[L] Adessive Edit

adjacent location; near/at/by the house

[S] Adverbial Edit

being as something; as a house

[MA] Agentive Edit

agent, specifies or asks about who or what; specific agent that is subset of a general topic or subject

it was she who committed the crime; as for him, his head hurts

[L] Apudessive Edit

location next to something; next to the house

[R] Aversive Edit

avoiding or fear; avoiding the house

[R] Causative Edit

Causative case is a case which expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the cause of the situation expressed by the clause.

[R] Comitative Edit

Comitative case is a case expressing accompaniment. It carries the meaning "with" or "accompanied by."

[S] Comparative Edit

similarity with something; similar to a house

[Mf] Delative Edit

Delative case is a case which expresses motion downward from the referent of the noun it marks.

[R] Distributive Edit

distribution by piece; per house

[Mf] Egressive Edit

marking the beginning of a movement or time; beginning from the house

[Mf] Elative Edit

Elative case is a case expressing motion out of or away from the referent of the noun it marks.

[S] Equative Edit

Equative case is a case that expresses likeness or identity to the referent of the noun it marks. It can have meaning, such as: as, like, and in the capacity of.

[S] [T] Essive Edit

Essive case is a case that expresses the temporary state of the referent specified by a noun. The case has the meaning of while, and in the capacity of. Also used for specifying days and dates when something happens

[S] Exessive Edit

marking a transition from a condition; from being a house (i.e. it stops being a house)

[S] Formal Edit

marking a consition as a quality; as a house

[S] Identical Edit

showing that something is identical; being the house

[L] Inessive Edit

Inessive case is a case that expresses a location within the referent of the noun it marks.

[Mf] Initiative Edit

starting point of an action; beginning from the house

[MA] Instructive Edit

means, answers question how?; by means of the house

[MA] Intransitive Edit

the subject of an intransitive verb or the logical complement of a transitive verb; The door opened

[L] Intrative Edit

between something; between the houses

[Mt] Lative Edit

Lative case is a case that expresses motion up to the location of, or as far as the referent of the noun it marks.

[T] Limitive Edit

specifying a deadline

[MA] Objective Edit

direct or indirect object of verb; I saw her; I gave her the book.

[MA] Oblique Edit

all-round case; any situation except nominative or vocative || concerning the house

[S] Orientative Edit

oriented towards something; turned toward the house

[R] Ornative Edit

endowment with something; equipped with a house

[Sem] Partitive Edit

Partitive case is a case that expresses the partial nature of the referent of the noun it marks, as opposed to expressing the whole unit or class of which the referent is a part. This case may be found in items such as the following: Existential clauses; Nouns that are accompanied by numerals or units of measure; Predications of material from which something is made. It often has a meaning similar to the English word some.

[MA] Pegative Edit

agent in a clause with a dative argument; he gave the book to him

[Mv] Perlative Edit

movement through or along something; through/along the house

[L] Pertingent Edit

in contact with something; touching the house

[R] Posessed Edit

possession by something; the house is owned by someone

[R] Posessive Edit

direct possession of something; owned by the house

[R] Privative Edit

lacking something; without a house

[Mv] Prolative Edit

Prolative case is a case that expresses motion along or by the referent of the noun it marks.

[S] Revertive Edit

backwards to something; against the house

[R] Semblative Edit

similarity to something; that tree is like a house

[R] Sociative Edit

along with something, together with something; with the house

[L] Subessive Edit

under something; under/below the house

[Mt] Sublative Edit

movement onto the surface or below something; on(to) the house, under the house

[L] Superessive Edit

Superessive case is a case that expresses location on the referent of the noun it marks. It has the meaning of "on" or "upon."

[T] Temporal Edit

(used only with time expressions) specifying a time

[Mt] Terminative Edit

marking the end of a movement or time; as far as the house

[S] Translative Edit

Translative case is a case indicating that the referent of the noun, or the quality of the adjective, that it marks is the result of a process of change.