Noun Agreement Edit
Main Article: Agreement
Definite identifiability Edit
Definite identifiability is a kind of definiteness which indicates that an expression’s referent(s) is in some way identifiable to both speaker and addressee. The referent is identifiable because of a shared knowledge or situation, including a previous mention of the referent.
Generic term Edit
A generic term is a noun or noun phrase that refers to a whole class, or any member of a class as a representative of its class.
Indefiniteness is a kind of definiteness indicating that the referent(s) of an expression are not presumed to be identifiable. The referent is not identifiable because of a lack of shared knowledge or situation, including no previous mention of the referent.
Nonspecificity is a kind of definiteness, expressed by an interpretation of or grammatical marking on a noun or noun phrase, indicating that the speaker presumably does not know the identity of the referent(s).
Specificity is a kind of definiteness, expressed by the interpretation of or grammatical marking on a noun or noun phrase, indicating that the speaker presumably knows the identity of the referent(s).
Semantic Role Edit
Accompaniment is the semantic role of a thing that participates in close association with an agent, causer, or affected in an event.
Agent is the semantic role of a person or thing who is the doer of an event.
A beneficiary is the semantic role of a referent which is advantaged or disadvantaged by an event.
Causer is the semantic role of the referent which instigates an event rather than actually doing it.
A counteragent is the semantic role of a force or resistance against which an action is carried out.
Dative is the semantic role of a referent that is conscious of being affected by the state or action identified by the verb.
Experiencer is the semantic role of an entity (or referent) which receives, accepts, experiences, or undergoes the effect of an action.
Factitive is the semantic role of an referent that results from the action or state identified by a verb.
Goal is the semantic role of the place to which something moves, or thing toward which an action is directed.
Instrument is the semantic role of an inanimate thing that an agent uses to implement an event. It is the stimulus or immediate physical cause of an event.
Locative is a semantic role which identifies the location or spatial orientation of a state or action. A locative semantic role does not imply motion to, from, or across the location.
Manner is a semantic role that notes how the action, experience, or process of an event is carried out.
Measure is a semantic role which notes the quantification of an event.
Path is the semantic role describing the locale(s) transversed in motion or propulsion predications.
Patient is a semantic role that is usually the surface object of the verb in a sentence.
Range is the semantic role of the entity that completes, is a product of, or further specifies an event.
A result is a semantic role that refers to that which is produced by an event. This role is usually encoded as the surface object of a sentence.
Source is the semantic role of the following referents:The place of origin (with verbs of motion, locomotion, and propulsion); the entity from which a physical sensation emanates (with verbs of sensation, attention, and speech); The original owner in a transfer (with verbs of acquisition, transfer, and grab)
Time is the semantic role of the temporal placement of an event.
Possessor Agreement Edit
Main Article: Agreement