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Consonants Edit

Pulmonic Edit


Bilabial Labiodental Dental Alveolar Postalveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Glottal
Plosive p b t d ʈ ɖ c ɟ k g q ɢ
Nasal m ɱ n ɳ ɲ ŋ ɴ
Trill ʙ r ʀ
Tap or Flap ɾ ɽ
Fricative ɸ β f v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ ʂ ʐ ç ʝ x ɣ χ ʁ ħ ʕ h ɦ
Lateral Fricative ɬ ɮ
Approximant ʋ ɹ ɻ ɰ
Lateral Approximant l ɭ ʎ ʟ

Symbols to the right in a cell are voiced, to the left are voiceless. Shaded areas denote articulations judged impossible.

Non-Pulmonic Edit

Clicks

Voiced Implosives

Ejectives

ʘ Bilabial ɓ Bilabial ʼ Examplesː
ǀ Dental ɗ Dental/alveolar Bilabial
ǃ (Post)alveolar ʄ Palatal Dental/alveolar
ǂ Palatoalveolar ɠ Velar Velar
ǁ Alveolar Lateral ʛ Uvular Alveolar Fricative

Other Symbols Edit

ʍ Voiceless labial-velar fricative ɕ   ʑ Alveolo-palatal fricatives
w Voiced labial-velar approximant ɺ Voiced alveolar lateral flap
ɥ Voiced labial-palatal approximant ɧ Simultaneous ʃ and x
ʜ Voiceless epiglottal fricative Affricates and double articulations can
be represented by two symbols joined by
a tie bar if necessary.
k͡p    t͜s
ʢ Voiced epiglottal fricative
ʡ Epiglottal plosive

Diacritics Edit

̥ Voiceless n̥ d̥ ̼ Linguolabial t̼ d̼ ̪ Dental t̪ d̪
̬ Voiced s̬ t̬ ʷ Labialized tʷ dʷ ̺ Apical t̺ d̺
ʰ Aspirated tʰ dʰ ʲ Palatalized tʲ dʲ ̻ Laminal t̻ d̻
̤ Breathy Voice ˠ Velarized tˠ dˠ ˡ Lateral release
̰ Creaky Voice ˤ Pharyngealized tˤ dˤ ̚ No audible release
Raised ɹ̝ Lowered β̞ Velarized or Pharyngealized ɫ
ⁿ Nasal release dⁿ

Vowels Edit

Front Central Back
Close i y ɨ ʉ ɯ u
ɪ ʏ ʊ
Close-mid e ø -- -- ɘ ɵ -- -- ɤ o
ə
Open-mid ɛ œ -- -- ɜ ɞ -- ʌ ɔ
æ ɐ
Open a ɶ ɑ ɒ

Where segments appear in pairs, the on on the right represents a rounded vowel

Tones and Word Accents Edit

LEVEL

CONTOUR

e̋ or ˥ Extra High ě or ˩˥ Rising
é or ˦ High ê or ˥˩ Falling
ē or ˧ Mid e᷄ or ˧˥ High Rising
è or ˨ Low e᷅ or ˨˧ Low Rising
ȅ or ˩ Extra Low e᷈ or ˨˥˨ Rising Falling
Downstep Global Rise
Upstep Global Fall

Diacritics Edit

̹ More rounded ɔ̹ ̯ Non-syllabic ̈ Centralized ë
̜ Less rounded ɔ̜ ˞ Rhoticity ə˞ a˞ ̽ Mid-Centralized
̟ Advanced ̤ Breathy Voice ̃ Nasalized
̠ Retracted ̰ Creaky Voice ̙ Retracted Tongue Root
̝ Raised ̞ Lowered ̘ Advanced Tongue Root