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Aspect Edit

Accidental Edit

"accidentally"

Aorist Edit

it described an action "pure and simple"

Atelic Edit

a verb or verb phrase that presents an action or event as being incomplete is said to be atelic.

Attenuative Edit

The attenuative aspect indicates that the action encoded by the verb is less intense than it might have been

Cessative (/Terminative) Edit

Cessative aspect is aspect that expresses the cessation of an event or state.

Completive Edit

Completive aspect refers to an aspectual form that expresses an action that has been carried out "thoroughly and to completion"

Continuative Edit

grammatical aspect representing actions that are 'still' happening

Continuous Edit

Continuous aspect is an imperfective aspect that expresses an ongoing, but not habitual, occurrence of the state or event expressed by the verb.

Defective Edit

"almost"

Discontinuous Edit

a category of past tense of verbs  which carry an implication that the result of the event described no longer holds.

Distributive Edit

Distributive aspect is an iterative aspect which expresses that an event is applied to members of a group one after another.

Durative (/Delimitative) Edit

The delimitative aspect is a grammatical construct that indicates that a situation lasts only a certain amount of time.

Episodic Edit

non-gnomic

Experiential Edit

"I've Xed many times"

Frequentative Edit

A subclass of imperfective verbs that denotes a continuously repeated action

Gnomic/Generic Edit

expresses general truths or aphorisms

Habitual Edit

The habitual aspect is a form of expression connoting repetition or continuous existence of a state of affairs.

Imperfective Edit

Imperfective aspect is an aspect that expresses an event or state, with respect to its internal structure, instead of expressing it as a simple whole.

Inceptive (/Ingressive) Edit

The inceptive aspect identifies the beginning stage of an action

Inchoative Edit

Inchoative aspect is an aspect that expresses the beginning of an event or state.

Intensive Edit

denotes stronger, more forceful, or more concentrated action relative to the root on which the intensive is built

Intentional Edit

"carefully"

Iterative Edit

a grammatical aspect that expresses the repetition of an event observable on one single occasion

Moderative Edit

between "intensive" and "attenuative"

Momentane Edit

the momentane is a verb aspect indicating that an occurrence is sudden and short-lived.

Pausative Edit

"stopped for a while"

Perfective Edit

Perfective aspect is an aspect that expresses a temporal view of an event or state as a simple whole, apart from the consideration of the internal structure of the time in which it occurs.

Progressive Edit

the aspect of a verb that expresses an on-going action.

Prospective Edit

a grammatical aspect describing an event that occurs subsequent to a given reference time.

Protractive Edit

"went on and on"

Punctual Edit

Verbs in the punctual aspect designate the whole event as a single occurrence

Resultative Edit

In resultative constructions, the event is presented as the resulting state

Resumptive Edit

"resumed"

Segmentative Edit

seperated into successive events

Stative Edit

The stative aspect is used to refer to a state which persists or expresses a state of affairs rather than an action

Telic Edit

a verb or verb phrase that presents an action or event as being complete in some sense


Mood and Modality Edit

Alethic modality Edit

Alethic modality is modality that connotes the speaker’s estimation of the logical necessity or possibility of the proposition expressed by his utterance.

Assumptive mood Edit

Assumptive mood is an epistemic mode that signals the speaker's belief that his statement is based on facts about what is usually the case in such circumstances.

Auditory evidential Edit

An auditory evidential is a nonvisual evidential that signals that the speaker's evidence for the truth of his statement is based on what he has heard.

Commissive modality Edit

Commissive modality is a deontic modality that connotes the speaker's expressed commitment, as a promise or threat, to bring about the proposition expressed by the utterance.

Conditional mood Edit

It thus refers to a distinct verb form that expresses a hypothetical state of affairs, or an uncertain event, that is contingent on another set of circumstances.

Declarative mood Edit

Declarative mood is an epistemic mood that signals that the proposition expressed by a speaker’s utterance is offered as an unqualified statement of fact.

Deductive mood Edit

Deductive mood is an epistemic mood that signals that the speaker judges from other facts that the proposition expressed by his utterance is probably true.

Deliberative mood Edit

Deliberative mood is a directive mood which signals the speaker's request for instruction from the addressee as to whether to do the proposition expressed in the utterance.

Deontic modality Edit

Deontic modality is modality that connotes the speaker's degree of requirement of, desire for, or commitment to the realization of the proposition expressed by the utterance.

Directive modality Edit

Directive modality is a deontic modality that connotes the speaker’s degree of requirement of conformity to the proposition expressed by an utterance.

Dubitative mood Edit

Dubitative mood is an epistemic mood which signals a speaker’s reservation about the accuracy of his or her statement.

Epistemic modality Edit

Epistemic modality is a modality that connotes how much certainty or evidence a speaker has for the proposition expressed by his or her utterance.

Evidentiality modality Edit

Evidentiality is an epistemic modality that connotes the speaker's assessment of the evidence for his or her statement. An evidential is a form, such as a verbal affix, that is a grammatical expression of evidentiality.

Hypothetical mood Edit

Hypothetical mood is an epistemic mood that signals that the speaker evaluates a proposition as counterfactual, but otherwise possible.

Immediate imperative mood Edit

Immediate imperative mood is an imperative mood that signals that the command or request is to be carried out right away.

Imperative mood Edit

Imperative mood is mood that signals directive modality, especially in commands. Its use may be extended to signal permission.

Imprecative mood Edit

Imprecative mood is a volitive mood that signals the speaker's wish that an unfavorable proposition will come about.

Indicative mood Edit

The indicative mood is a verb form which makes a statement or asks a question.

Interrogative mood Edit

An interrogative mood is an epistemic mood that signals that the speaker wishes to elicit information concerning the content of his or her utterance from the addressee.

Irrealis modality Edit

Irrealis modality is a modality that connotes that the proposition with which it is associated is nonactual or nonfactual.

Judgement modality Edit

Judgment modality is an epistemic modality that connotes the speaker's strength of inference, or degree of confidence in the reality of the proposition expressed by his or her utterance.

Jussive mood Edit

Jussive mood is a directive mood that signals a speaker's command, permission, or agreement that the proposition expressed by his or her utterance be brought about.

Necessity modality Edit

Necessity is a degree of contingency in modality that in: alethic modality connotes logical requirement; deontic modality connotes obligation; and epistemic modality connotes certainty.

Nonvisual evidential Edit

A nonvisual evidential is a sensory evidential that signals that the speaker's evidence for the truth of his or her statement is derived from a sense other than sight.

Obligative mood Edit

Obligative mood is a directive mood that signals the speaker's estimation of the necessity that the proposition expressed in his or her utterance be brought about.

Optative mood Edit

a grammatical mood that indicates a wish or hope

Permissive mood Edit

Permissive mood is a directive mood that signals the speaker’s act of giving permission.

Possibility modality Edit

Possibility is a degree of contingency in modality that in: alethic modality connotes logical possibility; deontic modality connotes permission; and epistemic modality connotes uncertainty or speculation.

Precative mood Edit

Precative mood is a directive mood that signals that the utterance is a request.

Prohibitive mood Edit

Prohibitive mood is a directive mood that signals a prohibition. It is distinguished by the use of a negated imperative sentence that employs a negative marker distinct from that used in declarative sentences, or a verb form different from that of the imperative.

Quotative evidential Edit

A quotative evidential is an evidential that signals that someone else is the source of the statement made.

Realis modality Edit

Realis modality is a modality that connotes the factuality of a proposition.

Sensory evidential Edit

A sensory evidential is an evidential signaling that the speaker’s evidence for the truth of his or her statement is derived from the speaker’s own sensory experience.

Speculative mood Edit

Speculative mood is an epistemic mood that signals that the speaker judges from certain facts that the proposition expressed by his or her utterance is possibly true.

Subjunctive mood Edit

Subjunctive mood is a mood that typically signals irrealis meanings, such as potentiality, uncertainty, prediction, obligation, and desire. It most typically occurs in a subordinate clause, but may occur outside of one.

Visual evidential Edit

A visual evidential is a sensory evidential signaling that the speaker's evidence for the truth of his or her statement is derived from the speaker’s own sight.

Volitive modality Edit

Volitive modality is a deontic modality that expresses the speaker’s attitude of hope, wish, or fear concerning the proposition expressed by the utterance.

Adhortative modality Edit

Adhortative modality signals the speaker's encouragement toward the addressee's bringing about the proposition of an utterance.

Exhortative modality Edit

Exhortative modality signals the speaker's avid encouragement toward the addressee's bringing about the proposition of an utterance.

Suprahortative modality Edit

Suprahortative modality signals the speaker's (super) avid encouragement toward the addressee's bringing about the proposition of an utterance.

Dehortative modality Edit

Dehortative modality signals the speaker's discouragement of the addressee's bringing about the proposition of an utterance.

Inhortative modality Edit

Inhortative modality signals the speaker's avid discouragement or strong urging against the addressee's bringing about the proposition of an utterance.

Infrahortative modality Edit

Infrahortative modality signals the speaker's absolute discouragement toward the addressee's bringing about the proposition of an utterance.

Cohortative (/Propositive) modality Edit

Cohortative modality signals the speaker's encouragement or discouragement toward the addressee's bringing about the proposition of an utterance along with the speaker; in other words, it signals mutual encouragement for the speaker and the addressee(s).

Mirativity Edit

encodes the speaker's surprise or the unpreparedness of their mind

Desiderative Edit

has the meaning of "wanting to X"

Benedictive Mood Edit

It expresses a blessing or wish, such as found in the English expressions "long live the king" and "may the force be with you".

Inferential Mood Edit

to report a nonwitnessed event without confirming it


Verbal Agreement Edit

Main Article: Agreement (Linguistics)

Subject Edit



Ergative Edit



Object Edit



Absolutive Edit




Polarity Edit

Affirmative Edit



Negative Edit




Switch Reference Edit

Different subject marker Edit

if the subject of one verb differs from the subject of the following verb

Same subject marker Edit

When the subject of one verb is the same as the subject of the following verb


Tense Edit

Absolute tense Edit

Close future Edit

Close future tense is a tense that refers to a time shortly after the moment of utterance.

Future Edit

Future tense is an absolute tense that refers to a time after the moment of utterance.

Hesternal past Edit

Hesternal past tense is a past tense that refers to a time that is located somewhere in the span beginning with the period defined culturally as "yesterday" and extends back through some period that is considered nonremote.

Hodiernal future Edit

Hodiernal future tense is a future tense that refers to a time that is located after the moment of utterance within the span culturally defined as "today."

Hodiernal past Edit

Hodiernal past tense is a past tense that refers to a time as located before the moment of utterance within the span culturally defined as "today."

Immediate past Edit

Immediate past tense is past tense that refers to a time considered very recent in relation to the moment of utterance.

Nonfuture Edit

Nonfuture tense is an absolute tense that refers to a time at or before the moment of utterance, and contrasts with a future tense.

Nonpast Edit

Nonpast tense is an absolute tense that refers to a time at or after the moment of utterance, and contrasts with a past tense.

Nonrecent past Edit

Nonrecent past tense is a past tense that refers to a time before the range of a contrasting recent past tense.

Nonremote past Edit

Nonremote past tense is a past tense that refers to a time considered not more than a few days ago, in contrast to a remote past tense.

Not-yet Edit

Not-yet tense is an absolute tense that refers to times at and before the moment of utterance in asserting the present and past nonoccurrence of an event or state. It tends to imply that the event or state is expected to occur in the future. This tense corresponds to the meaning of the English not yet.

Past Edit

Past tense is an absolute tense that refers to a time before the moment of utterance.

Post-hodiernal future Edit

Post-hodiernal future tense is a future tense that refers to a time, in relation to the moment of utterance, after the span that is culturally defined as "today."

Predictive future Edit

Predictive future tense is a future tense, used in predictions, that does not express intention.

Prehesternal past Edit

Prehesternal past tense is a past tense that refers to a time in some span before that of an opposing hesternal past tense.

Prehodiernal past Edit

Prehodiernal past tense is a past tense that refers to a time in some span before that of a contrasting hodiernal past tense.

Present Edit

Present tense is an absolute tense that refers to the moment of utterance. It often refers to events or states that do not merely coincide with the moment of utterance, such as those that are continuous, habitual, or lawlike.

Preterit Edit

A preterit, in traditional terminology, is a simple past tense not marked for aspect or modality.

Recent past Edit

Recent past tense is a past tense that refers to a time, culturally and situationally defined, within the span ranging from yesterday to a week or a few months previous.

Remote future Edit

Remote future is a future tense that refers to a time that is considered relatively distant. It is characteristically after the span of time culturally defined as "tomorrow."

Remote past Edit

Remote past tense is a past tense that refers to a time considered more than a few days ago.

Still Edit

Still tense is an absolute tense carrying the presupposition that an event or state held before the moment of utterance. In positive declarative clauses, still tense asserts that the event or state holds at the moment of utterance.


Absolute-relative tense Edit

Future perfect Edit

Future perfect tense is an absolute-relative tense that refers to a time located before a contextually determined temporal reference point that must be located in the future relative to the moment of utterance.

Future-in-future Edit

Future-in-future tense is an absolute-relative tense that refers to a time located in the future, relative to a temporal reference point that itself is located in the future relative to the moment of utterance.

Future-in-past Edit

Future-in-past tense is an absolute-relative tense that refers to a time located in the future, relative to a contextually determined temporal reference point that itself must be located in the past relative to the moment of utterance.

Future-perfect-in-past Edit

Future-perfect-in-past tense is an absolute-relative tense that involves three points in time in the past. The tense refers to a time that is in the future, relative to another point in the past, but is in the past relative to a point in its future. All these points in time are in the past relative to the moment of utterance.

Past perfect Edit

Past perfect tense is an absolute-relative tense that refers to a time in the past relative to a reference point, which itself is in the past relative to the moment of utterance.


Relative tense Edit

Future Edit

Relative future tense is a relative tense that refers to a time located after a contextually determined temporal reference point, regardless of the latter’s relation to the moment of utterance.

Nonfuture Edit

Relative nonfuture tense is a relative tense that refers to a time simultaneous to, or before, a contextually determined temporal reference point, regardless of the latter's relation to the moment of utterance.

Nonpast Edit

Relative nonpast tense is a relative tense that refers to a time simultaneous to, or after, a contextually determined temporal reference point, regardless of the latter's relation to the moment of utterance.

Past Edit

Relative past tense is a relative tense that refers to a time located before that of a contextually determined temporal reference point.

Present Edit

Relative present tense is a relative tense that refers to a time that is simultaneous with some contextually determined temporal reference point.


Transitivity Edit

Ditransitivity Edit

Ditransitivity is a term which describes a verb or clause which takes two objects.

Intransitivity Edit

Intransitivity is a term that describes a verb or clause that is unable to take a direct object.

Transitive verb Edit

A transitive verb is a verb that takes a direct object.


Voice Edit

Active Edit

Active voice is a voice that indicates a subject has the semantic function of actor.

Antipassive Edit

Antipassive voice is a voice in an ergative-absolutive language in which: a noun phrase that normally has ergative case instead has absolutive case; a noun phrase that normally has absolutive case is marked as an oblique or an indirect object; and the salience of the normally absolutive noun phrase is, according to some analysts, decreased.

Impersonal passive Edit

The impersonal passive voice, sometimes called pseudo-passive voice, is a verb voice that decreases the valency of an intransitive verb (which has valency one) to zero.

Mediopassive Edit

Mediopassive voice is a passive voice in which the verb has stative meaning, and actor is not expressed.

Middle Edit

Middle voice is a voice that indicates that the subject is the actor and acts upon himself or herself reflexively, or for his or her own benefit. In the case of plural subjects, the actors may, perhaps, act upon each other.

Passive Edit

Passive voice is a voice that indicates that the subject is the patient or recipient of the action denoted by the verb.

Personal passive Edit

In the personal passive, an active sentence that contains an accusative object is converted into the passive voice